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Cambridge Centre for Carbon Credits (4C)


*Key 4C papers are marked in bold. Working papers have not yet been peer reviewed.

Carbon Credits

"Framework for assessing justice and equity impacts of nature-based solutions projects", Miranda Lam, James Hartup, Andrew Balmford, E-Ping Rau, Charlotte Wheeler, Thomas Swinfield. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, May 2024.

"Global, robust and comparable digital carbon assets", Sadiq Jaffer, Patrick Ferris, Thomas Swinfield, Derek Sorensen, Robin Message, Srinivasan Keshav, Anil Madhavapeddy. To be appear in IEEE ICBC 2024, May 2024.

"Insuring against variability in the performance of Nature-Based Climate Solutions", E-ping Rau, James Gross, David Coomes, Thomas Swinfield, Anil Madhavapeddy, Andrew Balmford, Srinivasan Keshav. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, March 2024.

"Conflicts and opportunities for commercial tree plantation expansion and biodiversity restoration across Brazil", Gianluca CerulloThomas WorthingtonPedro BrancalionJoyce BrandãoFrancisco d'AlbertasAlison EyresThomas SwinfieldDavid EdwardsAndrew Balmford. Global Change Biology, March 2024.

"A call to develop carbon credits for second-growth forests", Pedro H. S. BrancalionAndrew BalmfordCharlotte E. WheelerRicardo R. RodriguesBernardo B. N. StrassburgThomas Swinfield. Nature Ecology & Evolution, Jan 2024.

"PACT Tropical Moist Forest Accreditation Methodology v2.0", Andrew Balmford, David Coomes, Michael Dales, Patrick FerrisJames Hartup, Sadiq Jaffer, Srinivasan Keshav, Miranda Lam, Anil Madhavapeddy, Robin Message, E-Ping Rau, Thomas Swinfield, Charlotte Wheeler. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, December 2023.

"Carbon Credits and the 'Peter Pan' forests", Thomas Swinfield, Pedro Brancalion, Andrew Balmford, Charlotte Wheeler, Bernardo Strassburg. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, Nov 2023.

"Realizing the social value of impermanent carbon credits", Andrew Balmford, Srinivasan Keshav, Frank Venmans, David Coomes, Ben Groom, Anil Madhavapeddy, Thomas Swinfield. Nature Climate Change, Aug 2023. (OpenEngage version) (news articles: Cambridge, Mongabay)
Abstract: A new framework linking economics with remote-sensing means impermanent carbon reduction can be directly compared with permanent drawdown.

"PACT Tropical Moist Forest Accreditation Methodology v1.0", Andrew Balmford, David Coomes, Michael Dales, Patrick FerrisJames Hartup, Sadiq Jaffer, Srinivasan Keshav, Miranda Lam, Anil Madhavapeddy, Robin Message, E-Ping Rau, Thomas Swinfield, Charlotte Wheeler. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, June 2023.

"Carbon Credibility Threatens Forests", Andrew Balmford, Pedro HS Brancalion, David Coomes, Ben Filewod, Ben Groom, Alejandro Guizar-Coutiño, Julie PG Jones, Srinivasan Keshav, Andreas Kontoleon, Anil Madhavapeddy, Yadvinder Malhi, Erin O Sills, Bernardo BN Strassburg, Frank Venmans, Thales AP West, Charlotte Wheeler and Tom Swinfield. Science, May 2023.

"Cambridge Carbon Impact: Evaluating carbon credit claims and co-benefits", Tom Swinfield and Andrew Balmford. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, March 2023.

Additionality, Permanence and Leakage

"Evaluating the impacts of a large-scale voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone", Mandy Malan, Rachel Carmenta, Elisabeth Gsottbauer, Paul Hofman, Andreas Kontoleon, Tom Swinfield, Maarten Voors. In Nature Sustainability, January 2024.

"The global impact of EU forest protection policies", Gianluca Cerullo, Jos Barlow, Matthew Betts, David Edwards, Alison Eyres, Filipe França, Rachael Garret, Thomas Swinfield, Eleanor Tew, Thomas White, Andrew BalmfordScience, August 2023.

"Enhancing the ecological value of oil palm agriculture through set-asides", Jake E Bicknell, Jesse R O’Hanley, Paul R Armsworth, Eleanor M Slade, Nicolas J Deere, Simon L Mitchell, David Hemprich-Bennett, Victoria Kemp, Stephen J Rossiter, Owen T Lewis, David A Coomes, Agnes L Agama, Glen Reynolds, Matthew J Struebig, Zoe G Davies. Nature Sustainability, Feb 2023.

"A global evaluation of the effectiveness of voluntary REDD+ projects at reducing deforestation and degradation in the moist tropics", Alejandro Guizar-Coutiño, Julia P G Jones, Andrew Balmford, Rachel Carmenta, David A Coomes. Conservation Biology 36(6), Dec 2022.

"Elevated fires during COVID-19 lockdown and the vulnerability of protected areas", Johanna Eklund, Julia P. G. Jones, Matti Räsänen, Jonas Geldmann, Ari-Pekka Jokinen, Adam Pellegrini, Domoina Rakotobe, O. Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Tuuli Toivonen, Andrew Balmford. Nature Sustainability (vol 5, pg 603–609), May 2022.

"The role of different governance regimes in reducing native vegetation conversion and promoting regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon", Helena N. Alves-Pinto, Carlos L.O. Cordeiro, Jonas Geldmann, Harry D. Jonas, Marilia Palumbo Gaiarsa, Andrew Balmford, James E.M. Watson, Agnieszka Ewa Latawiec, Bernardo Strassburg. Biological Conservation (267), Feb 2022.

"A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures", Jonas Geldmann, Andrea Manica, Neil D. Burgess, Lauren Coad, Andrew Balmford. PNAS (Vol 116 No. 46), Oct 2019.

"Protected area effectiveness in reducing conversion in a rapidly vanishing ecosystem: the Brazilian Cerrado", Tharsila Carranza, Andrew Balmford, Valerie Kapos, & Andrea Manica. Conservation Letters (00, pg 1-8). 2013.


"LIFE: A metric for quantitively mapping the impact of land-cover change on global extinctions", Alison Eyres, Thomas Ball, Michael Dales, Tom Swinfield, Andy Arnell, Daniele Baisero, América Paz Durán, Jonathan Green, Anil Madhavapeddy and Andrew Balmford. Cambridge Open Engage working paper, Nov 2023. (news article)

"Limits to the accurate and generalizable use of soundscapes to monitor biodiversity", Sarab S Sethi, Avery Bick, Robert M Ewers, Holger Klinck, Vijay Ramesh, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, David A Coomes. Nature Ecology & Evolution (vol 7, issue 9). Sep 2023.

"Current conservation policies risk accelerating biodiversity loss", Ian Bateman, Andrew Balmford. Nature (volume 618, issue 7966). Aug 2023. (news article).

"Landscape-scale benefits of protected areas for tropical biodiversity", Jedediah F. Brodie, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Cheng Chen, Oliver R. Wearn, Mairin C. M. Deith, James G. C. Ball, Eleanor M. Slade, David F. R. P. Burslem, Shu Woan Teoh, Peter J. Williams, An Nguyen, Jonathan H. Moore, Scott J. Goetz, Patrick Burns, Patrick Jantz, Christopher R. Hakkenberg, Zaneta M. Kaszta, Sam Cushman, David Coomes, Olga E. Helmy, Glen Reynolds, Jon Paul Rodríguez, Walter Jetz & Matthew Scott Luskin. Nature 620, 807-812, August 2023

Mobile and Remote Sensing

"A Trunk Diameter Estimation Mobile App for the Masses", Zhengpeng Feng, Mingyue Xie, Amelia Holcomb, Srinivasan Keshav. Working paper on Cambridge Open Engage, Dec 2023.

"Computational tools for assessing forest recovery with GEDI shots and forest change maps"Amelia Holcomb, Simon V. Mathis, David A. Coomes, Srinivasan Keshav, Science of Remote Sensing (vol 8). Dec 2023.

"Accurate delineation of individual tree crowns in tropical forests from aerial RGB imagery using Mask R-CNN", James G. C. Ball, Sebastian H. M. Hickman, Tobias D. Jackson, Xian Jing Koay, James Hirst, William Jay, Matthew Archer, Mélaine Aubry-Kientz, Grégoire Vincent, David A. Coomes. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. May 2023.

"A Case for Planetary Computing", Amelia HolcombMichael DalesPatrick FerrisSadiq JafferThomas SwinfieldAlison EyresAndrew BalmfordDavid CoomesSrinivasan KeshavAnil MadhavapeddyWorking paper on arXiv (2303.04501), March 2023.

"Surveying coconut trees using high-resolution satellite imagery in remote atolls of the Pacific Ocean", Juepeng Zheng, Shuai Yuan, Wenzhao Wu, Weijia Li, Le Yu, Haohuan Fu, David Coomes. Remote Sensing of Environment (Vol 287) March 2023.

"Robust Single-Image Tree Diameter Estimation with Mobile Phones", Amelia Holcomb, Linze Tong, Srinivasan Keshav. Remote Sensing 15(3). Jan 2023.

"Unsupervised Diffusion and Volume Maximization-Based Clustering of Hyperspectral Images", Sam L Polk, Kangning Cui, Aland HY Chan, David A Coomes, Robert J Plemmons, James M Murphy. Remote Sensing (Vol 15, Issue 4). Jan 2023.